If the blood is alkaline,
a. more hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions are excreted.
b. less hydrogen ions and more bicarbonate ions are reabsorbed.
c. less hydrogen ions are excreted and less bicarbonate are reabsorbed.
d. the kidneys reabsorb increased amounts of water.
e. the diet must be low in necessary acids.
Which of the following is not a function of the liver?
a. the production of bile
b. the production of digestive enzymes
c. the production of blood proteins
d. the removal of blood toxins
e. the storage of iron and certain vitamins
Food is prevented from entering the trachea by the
e. sphincter muscle.
An antibiotic such as penicillin that is taken orally is soon excreted in the urine. Since infections require antibiotic exposure for effective control, what is the best strategy for overcoming this continual loss?
a. Provide another oral medication that stops cellular metabolism.
b. Provide a medication that prevents the filtration of all metabolites in the kidney.
c. Take a much larger single dose of penicillin.
d. Take continual doses of penicillin sufficient to maintain it in the bloodstream.
e. Provide a medication that prevents all reabsorption in the kidneys.
The digestive system does NOT function in the
a. chemical breakdown of food.
b. mechanical breakdown of food.
c. elimination of waste products.
d. absorption of food molecules.
e. manufacture of food molecules.
Deamination of amino acids will result initially in the formation of
e. uric acid.
Which is NOT a correct association of intestinal disorders?
a. diarrhea—rapid movement of feces that may result in dehydration
b. constipation—too slow movement of feces permitting hard and dry feces
c. polyps—small growths on the epithelial lining that can become cancerous
d. hemorrhoids—a sexually contracted disease
e. hepatitis—inflammation of the liver
The loop of the nephron (loop of Henle)
a. is necessary for glucose reabsorption.
b. creates a low osmotic pressure in the medulla.
c. creates a high osmotic pressure in the medulla.
d. creates a low osmotic pressure in the cortex.
e. creates a high osmotic pressure in the cortex.
Currently, the one year survival rate following a kidney transplant is 95-98%.
Which eating disorder is characterized by an irrational fear of getting fat, often associated with a perceived body defect?
a. anorexia nervosa
b. bulimia nervosa
c. binge-eating and purging
Crohn's disease is considered an autoimmune disease.
Which of the following is the main difference between the urinary system of males and females?
a. Men have 2 urethras while women have only one urethra.
b. The urethra is shorter in females.
c. Men have longer ureters than females.
d. Kidneys tend to be larger in females.
e. The female urethra passes through the prostate gland.
Urethra and bladder infections are easily treated with antibiotics while simple kidney infections are easier to treat.
In humans, digestion of starch begins in the
e. large intestine.
a. toxic chemicals that must be avoided in the diet.
b. the breakdown products of protein digestion.
c. another name for free radicals.
d. chemicals found in fruits and vegetables that defend against free radicals.
e. only found in food supplements in pill form.
A correct function of the human stomach is
a. to produce highly basic fluids to kill most bacteria.
b. to begin the absorption of most small food molecules, especially sugars.
c. storage of food and mixing with digestive fluids to allow chemical digestion.
d. to pass food from the esophagus to the large intestine.
e. absorption of iron to build hemoglobin for red blood cells.
Which of the following statements about the glomerulus is INCORRECT?
a. Blood pressure primarily accounts for filtration.
b. Small molecules move from the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule into the glomerulus.
c. It is composed of capillaries.
d. It is connected to arterioles at both ends.
e. It is surrounded by the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule.
Which of the following does NOT represent a category of the MyPlate food guide symbol?
a. skim milk
c. chicken breast
d. whole wheat bread
Reabsorption of nutrient molecules occurs in what part of the nephron?
b. distal convoluted tubule
c. proximal convoluted tubule
d. collecting duct
e. loop of the nephron (loop of Henle)
Each kidney has about one thousand structural units called nephrons.
"Artificial kidneys" do not function in all respects like a natural kidney. What is one inherent problem and what is its practical solution?
a. Artificial systems are less efficient; run the artificial kidney 24 hours a day.
b. Artificial kidneys are complex and must be operated at hospitals; train home care nurses.
c. Dialysis uses passive diffusion and some kidney functions require selective active transport; restricted diet to limit the variety of waste molecules.
d. Artificial kidneys treat the blood directly requiring IV tubing, etc.; invent an alternative to avoid the bloodstream.
e. Blood coagulates any time it leaves the body; dilute the blood.
Urinary tract infections that involve the bladder are called
If you vomit and stomach contents move out through the nose, there has been a failure of the
a. reflex action of reverse peristalsis.
b. trachea to move up under the epiglottis to cover the glottis.
c. soft palate to move back to close off the nasopharynx.
d. larynx to move up.
e. glottis to retain food.
Muscles that encircle tubes and act as valves are called
The urethra serves what other body system in males?